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Rhetorical Devices in the Inaugural Address of John F. Kennedy

It is in step with Aristotle speaker or author has 3 ways to influence his target audience: The first sort relies on the private personality of the speaker; the 2d is on hanging the target audience into a definite body of thoughts; the 3rd is on the evidence, or obvious evidence, equipped through the phrases of the speech itself.

One of the maximum influential individuals who made a memorable speech for the previous century is President John F. Kennedy, a well-known public speaker who wrote an inaugural deal with that accommodates an influence to influence so much of other folks.

His well known speech displays how his means of the usage of the artwork of persuasive written or spoken discourse (Rhetoric) that an creator or speaker makes use of to put across a which means to the listener or reader contributes to the objective or theme of his message for his countrymen.

Definition of Terms:

1. Alliteration: Repetition of consonant sounds at the initiating of phrases which are shut to each other.

2. Allusion: A short lived or oblique connection with an individual, position, tournament, or passage in a piece of literature or the Bible assumed to be sufficiently widely recognized to be identified through the reader.

three. Amplification: An enlargement of element to explain some extent.

four. Analogy: A comparability between two issues in which the extra complicated is defined in phrases of the extra easy.

five. Anaphora: Repetition of a number of phrases at the head of consecutive words, clauses, or sentences.

6. Anastrophe: Inversion of phrase order to mark emphasis.

7. Antimetabole: Reverasal or repeated phrases or words for impact.

eight. Antithesis: Contrast inside of parallel words (to not be puzzled with the extraordinary use of the phrase to imply “extreme opposite”).

nine. Assonance: Repetition of vowel sounds between other consonants.

10. Asyndeton: Absence of conjunctions.

11. Chiasmus: The reversal of grammatical order from one word to the subsequent.

12. Climax: Consists of arranging phrases, clauses, or sentences in the order of expanding significance, weight, or emphasis.

13. Conduplication: Resembles anadiplosis in the repetition of a previous phrase, but it surely repeats a key phrase (no longer simply the final phrase) from a previous word, clause, or sentence, at the initiating of the subsequent.

14. Consonance: Repetition of similar consonant sounds inside of two or extra phrases in shut proximity.

15. Ellipsis: Any not noted phase of speech this is simply understood in context.

16. Ethos: Makes use of what an target audience values and believes to be just right or true.

17. Hyperbole: Deliberate exaggeration in order to create humor or emphasis.

18. Imagery: Lively descriptions which galvanize the photographs of issues upon the thoughts the usage of a number of of the 5 senses.

19. Logos: interesting to explanation why in a measured, logical approach.

20. Metanoia: The qualification of a commentary to both diminish or enhance its tone.

21. Metaphor: Meaning or id ascribed to 1 topic through approach of every other.

22. Oxymoron: Contraditory phrases or concepts are blended.

23. Parallelism: The method of arranging phrases, words, clauses, or better constructions through hanging them aspect through aspect and making them an identical in shape.

24. Paradox: A commentary that turns out to contradict itself yet that seems to have a rational which means.

25. Pathos: Appealing to the feelings.

26. Personification: The attribution of human qualities to a nonhuman or inanimate object.

27. Polysyndeton: Insertion of conjunctions earlier than each and every phrase in a listing.

28. Repetition: Word or word used two or extra occasions in shut proximity.

29. Rhetorical Question: A query requested for rhethorical impact to emphasise some extent, no resolution being anticipated.

30. Sententia: The punctuation of some extent with an aphorism.

31. Syntax: The grammatical construction of a sentence; the association of phrases in a sentence.

32. Tricolon: A sequence of parallel phrases, words, clauses, or statements.

33. Zeugma: Includes a number of an identical rhetorical gadgets, all involving a grammatically proper linkage (or yoking in combination) of two or extra portions of speech through every other phase of speech.

Rhetorical Devices That Are Present In The Inaugural Address of John F. Kennedy:

*Alliteration

• “same solemn” (second sentence of the second paragraph)

• “man holds in his mortal hands” (1st sentence of the third paragraph)

• “for which our forebears fought” (second sentence of third paragraph)

• “to friend and foe alike” (4th paragraph)

• “whether it wishes us well or ill” (fifth paragraph)

• “Pay any price, bear any burden… ” (fifth paragraph)

• “the survival and the success of liberty” (fifth paragraph)

• “faithful friends” (1st sentence of the seventh paragraph)

• “colonial control” (1st sentence of the eighth paragraph)

• “strongly supporting” (second sentence of the eighth paragraph)

• “break the bonds of mass misery” (ninth paragraph)

• “sovereign states” (11th paragraph)

• “its writ may run” (11th paragraph)

• “the dark powers of destruction” (12th paragraph)

• “steady spread” (14th paragraph)

• “sincerity is always subject” (15th paragraph)

• “peace preserved” (ninth to the final paragraph)

• “bear the burden” (sixth to the final paragraph)

• “a grand and global alliance” (fifth to the final paragraph)

• “high standards of strength and sacrifice” (1st sentence of the final paragraph)

• “Let us go forth to lead the land we love… ” (second sentence of the final paragraph)

*Allusion

• “I have sworn before you and Almighty God.” (second sentence of the second paragraph)

• “those who foolishly sought power by riding the back of the tiger ended up inside” (final sentence of the eighth paragraph)

*Amplification

• “Let either side… Let either side… Let either side… Let either side (Paragraphs 16 to 19)

*Analogy

• “those who foolishly sought power by riding the back of the tiger ended up inside” (third sentence of the eighth paragraph)

*Anaphora

• “all paperwork of human poverty and all paperwork of human lifestyles” (1st sentence of the third paragraph)

• “no longer as a result of the communists could also be doing it, no longer as a result of we search their votes, yet as a result of it’s proper” (1st sentence of the ninth paragraph)

• “To the ones outdated allies… To the ones new states… To the ones other folks… To our sister… To that global… to these international locations… ” (Paragraphs 7 to 12)

• “We shall no longer at all times look forward to finding them supporting our view. But we will at all times hope to search out them strongly supporting their very own freedom” (second and third sentences of the eighth paragraph)

• “either side overburdened through the value of trendy guns, each rightly alarmed through the stable unfold of the fatal atom, but each racing to change that unsure stability of terror that remains the hand of mankind’s ultimate battle” (14th paragraph)

• “Let either side… Let either side… Let either side… Let either side” (Paragraphs 16 to 19)

• “no longer as a choice to undergo hands, even though hands we need–not as a choice to combat, even though embattled we are–but a choice to undergo the burden of a protracted twilight battle, yr in and yr out” (sixth to the final paragraph)

• “the first 100 days. Nor will or not it’s completed in the first 1000 days, nor in the lifestyles of this Administration, nor even most likely in our lifetime on the planet” (eighth to the final paragraph)

*Anastrophe

• “Dare no longer” (1st sentence of the 4th paragraph and 13th paragraph & third sentence of the seventh paragraph)

• “This a lot we pledge” (sixth paragraph)

• “Ask no longer” (26th paragraph)

*Antimetabole

• “Ask no longer what your nation can do for you–ask what you’ll do to your nation.” (third to the final paragraph)

• “Let us by no means negotiate out of worry. But allow us to by no means worry to barter.” (second sentence of the 15th paragraph)

*Antithesis

• “We apply these days no longer a victory of birthday celebration yet a party of freedom–symbolizing an finish in addition to a initiating signifying renewal in addition to exchange. ” (1st sentence of the second paragraph)

• “… no longer from the generosity of the state yet from the hand of God.” (second sentence of the third paragraph)

• “Support any buddy, oppose any foe… ” (fifth paragraph)

• “United there’s little we can’t do in a number of cooperative ventures. Divided there’s little we will be able to do… ” (second sentence of the seventh paragraph)

• “Not as a result of… no longer as a result of… yet as a result of… ” (1st sentence of the ninth paragraph)

• “Let us by no means negotiate out of worry, yet allow us to by no means worry to barter.” (second sentence of the 15th paragraph)

• “Let either side discover what issues unite us as an alternative of belaboring the ones issues which divide us.” (16th paragraph)

• “no longer a brand new stability of energy, yet a brand new global of legislation” (20th paragraph)

• “Not as a choice to undergo hands… no longer as a choice to combat.. yet a choice to undergo the burden… ” (23rd paragraph)

• “I don’t shrink from this responsibility–I welcome it.” (second sentence of the 25th paragraph)

• “… ask no longer what you nation can do for you, ask what you’ll do to your nation.” (26th paragraph)

• “ask no longer what America will do for you, yet what in combination we will be able to do for the freedom of guy” (second to the final paragraph)

*Assonance

• “… the stable unfold of the fatal atom.” (14th paragraph)

*Asyndeton

• “We shall pay any value, undergo any burden, meet any hardship, fortify any buddy, oppose any foe… ” (fifth paragraph)

• “discover the stars, triumph over the deserts, eliminate illness, faucet the ocean depths” (second sentence of the 18th paragraph)

• “The power, the religion, the devotion” (4th to the final paragraph)

*Chiasmus

• “Let us by no means negotiate out of worry. But allow us to by no means worry to barter.” (second sentence of the 15th paragraph)

• “ask no longer what your nation can do for you–ask what you’ll do to your nation” (third to the final paragraph)

*Climax

• “All this might not be completed in the first 100 days. Nor will or not it’s completed in the first 1000 days, nor in the lifestyles of this Administration, nor even most likely in our lifetime on the planet.” (eighth to the final paragraph)

*Conduplication

• “to lend a hand them lend a hand themselves” (1st sentence of the ninth paragraph)

• “just right phrases into just right deeds” (1st sentence of the 10th paragraph)

• “loose males and loose governments” (1st sentence of the 10th paragraph)

• “the tools of battle have some distance outpaced the tools of peace” (11th paragraph)

• “absolute energy… absolute regulate… ” (17th paragraph)

*Consonance

• “Whether it needs us neatly or sick, that we will… ” (fifth paragraph)

*Ellipsis

• “This a lot we pledge–and extra.” (sixth paragraph)

*Ethos

• “Vice President Johnson, Mr. Speaker, Mr. Chief Justice, President Eisenhower, Vice President Nixon, President Truman, Reverend Clergy, fellow electorate: We apply these days no longer a victory of birthday celebration yet a party of freedom–symbolizing an finish in addition to a beginning–signifying renewal in addition to exchange.” (Paragraphs 1 & 2)

• “In the lengthy historical past of the global, only some generations had been granted the function of protecting freedom in its hour of most threat. I don’t shrink from this responsibility–I welcome it.” (4th to the final paragraph)

• “With a just right judgment of right and wrong our handiest positive praise, with historical past the ultimate pass judgement on of our deeds, allow us to cross forth to steer the land we like, asking His blessing and His lend a hand, yet realizing that right here on earth God’s paintings should in point of fact be our personal.” (final sentence of the final paragraph)

*Hyperbole

• “Let each and every country know, whether or not it needs us neatly or sick, that we will pay any value, undergo any burden, meet any hardship, fortify any buddy, oppose any foe to guarantee the survival and the good fortune of liberty.” (fifth paragraph)

*Imagery

• “The torch has been handed to a brand new technology of Americans.” (4th paragraph)

*Logos

• “outdated allies whose cultural and non secular origins we proportion” (1st sentence of the seventh paragraph)

• “new states whom we welcome to the ranks of the loose” (1st sentence of the eighth paragraph)

• “other folks in the huts and villages of part the globe suffering to damage the bonds of mass distress” (1st sentence of the ninth paragraph)

• “that global meeting of sovereign states, the United Nations” (11th paragraph)

• “international locations who would make themselves our adversary” (12th paragraph)

*Metanoia

• “Now the trumpet summons us again–not as a choice to undergo hands, even though hands we need–not as a choice to combat, even though embattled we are–but a choice to undergo the burden of a protracted twilight battle, yr in and yr out, “rejoicing in hope, patient in tribulation”–a battle in opposition to the not unusual enemies of guy: tyranny, poverty, illness and battle itself.” (sixth to the final paragraph)

*Metaphor

• “We are the heirs of the first revolution.” (1st sentence of the 4th paragraph)

• “Let the phrase cross ahead from this time and position, to buddy and foe alike, that the torch has been handed to a brand new technology of Americans… ” (second sentence of the 4th paragraph)

• “using the again of the tiger” (third sentence of the eighth paragraph)

• “the bonds of mass distress” (ninth paragraph)

• “the chains of poverty” (1st sentence of the 10th paragraph)

• “evolution of hope” (second sentence of the 10th paragraph)

• “grasp of its personal space” (final sentence of the 10th paragraph)

• “stability of terror” (14th paragraph)

• “And if a beachhead of cooperation would possibly ward off the jungle of suspicion… ” (20th paragraph)

• “The power, the religion, the devotion which we convey to this enterprise will mild our nation and all who serve it–and the glow from that fireplace can in point of fact mild the global.” (4th to the final paragraph)

*Oxymoron

• “But this non violent revolution.” (second sentence of the 10th paragraph)

*Parallelism

• “We apply these days no longer a victory of birthday celebration yet a party of freedom–symbolizing an finish in addition to a initiating signifying renewal in addition to exchange.” (1st sentence of the second paragraph)

• “born in this century, tempered through battle, disciplined through a difficult and sour peace, proud of our historical heritage” (second sentence of the 4th paragraph)

• “Let each and every country know, whether or not it needs us neatly or sick, that we will pay any value, undergo any burden, meet any hardship, fortify any buddy, oppose any foe to guarantee the survival and the good fortune of liberty.” (fifth paragraph)

• “Let either side discover what issues unite us… Let either side, for the first time, formulate severe and exact proposals for the inspection and regulate of hands… Let either side search to invoke the wonders of science… Let either side unite… ” (Paragraphs 6 to nine)

• “United there’s little we can’t do in a number of cooperative ventures. Divided there’s little we will be able to do… ” (second and third sentences of the seventh paragraph)

• “If a loose society can’t lend a hand the many who’re deficient, it can’t save the few who’re wealthy.” (second sentence of the ninth paragraph)

• “enough past doubt are we able to make sure that past” (second sentence of the 13th paragraph)

*Paradox

• “Only when our hands are enough past doubt are we able to make sure that past doubt that they are going to by no means be hired.” (second sentence of the 13th paragraph)

*Pathos

• “To the ones other folks in the huts and villages of part the globe suffering to damage the bonds of mass distress… ” (1st sentence of the ninth paragraph)

• “he graves of younger Americans who replied the name toservice encompass the globe” (seventh to the final paragraph)

• ” The power, the religion, the devotion which we convey to this enterprise will mild our nation and all who serve it–and the glow from that fireplace can in point of fact mild the global.” (4th to the final paragraph)

*Personification

• “With historical past the ultimate pass judgement on of our deeds” (second sentence of the final paragraph)

*Polysyndeton

• “the place the robust are simply and the susceptible protected and the peace preserved” (ninth to the final paragraph)

*Repetition

• “For guy holds in his mortal arms the energy to abolish all paperwork of human poverty and all paperwork of human lifestyles.” (1st sentence of the third paragraph)

*Rhetorical Question

• “Can we forge in opposition to those enemies a grand and international alliance, North and South, East and West, that may guarantee a extra fruitful lifestyles for all mankind? Will you sign up for in that ancient effort?” (fifth to the final paragraph)

*Sententia

• “undo the heavy burdens… (and) let the oppressed cross loose” (19th paragraph)

*Syntax

• “My fellow electorate of the global: ask no longer what America will do for you, yet what in combination we will be able to do for the freedom of guy.” (second to the final paragraph)

*Tricolon

• “We apply these days no longer a victory of birthday celebration yet a party of freedom–symbolizing an finish in addition to a initiating signifying renewal in addition to exchange.” (1st sentence of the second paragraph)

• “no longer as a choice to undergo hands, even though hands we need–not as a choice to combat, even though embattled we are–but a choice to undergo the burden of a protracted twilight battle, yr in and yr out” (sixth to the final paragraph)

*Zeugma

• “Now the trumpet summons us again–not as a choice to undergo hands, even though hands we need–not as a choice to combat, even though embattled we are–but a choice to undergo the burden… ” (sixth to the final paragraph)

Encapsulation of Findings:

John F. Kennedy used 33 differing types of rhetorical gadgets in his inaugural speech. The maximum dominant rhetorical software that he used was once the utilization of alliteration.

Conclusion:

Through in depth research, it may be noticed that it’s glaring that he has a purpose of getting the target audience’s consideration to pay attention and to grasp his issues in a significant approach in the fields of writing and talking.

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